Multithreaded Fizzbuzz in C++

by Brian Shourd on October 18, 2013

Tags: coding, c++

Here I am, practicing again. I’ve never really learned proper multithreading techniques, and I’m refreshing my C++ skills, so I decided (after much reading and several even smaller practice projects) to write a simple multithreaded program.

You may be familiar with the classic FizzBuzz problem. The task is to write a program that prints out every number from 0 to 100, except that whenever the number is divisible by 3, it prints out “Fizz” instead, and whenever it is divisible by 5, it prints out “Buzz” instead. If the number is divisible by 15, it prints out “FizzBuzz”. There is a natural extension to arbitrary prime (or not) numbers with arbitrary words, e.g. print “Baz” instead of 7.

To multithread this, we can create a new thread for each number/word pair, whose sole job it is to find multiples of number. It will place strings into a queue (either “” if the corresponding number is not divisible by number, or word if it is), which is a shared data structure, and must be protected by mutexes. Moreover, we don’t want this queue to overflow, so it must wait on a signal (from something emptying the queue) if the queue fills up.

The other thread is a printer, which accesses each of the above queues, pulls the next entry from them, and prints the appropriate result. So it might pull “” and “Buzz” from the queues, indicating that the current number is divisible by 5, but not by 3, and so will print “Buzz”. Or it might pull “” and “”, indicating that the current number is relatively prime to 3 and 5, and then just print the current number.

I decided to split this up as two data structures: * a FizzQueue class that automatically manages its own thread which fills itself up and features a single public method pop, retrieving a single item. It also handles its own mutexes and signals, so that pop can be called by other threads. On being destroyed, it cleans up its thread, which joins the destroyer’s thread. * a Printer class that creates FizzQueue instances on demand through a public method addPair(int, string). When execute() is run, it will begin printing from the queues until a maximum is reached, at which point it will destroy the created FizzQueue instances and be ready to start anew.

It was a pretty extreme way to tackle the Fizzbuzz problem, and is almost certainly extremely inefficient. But it taught me a lot about handling threads, mutexes, conditions, and about creating objects that run in their own threads.

You can find the code on Github.